int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

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int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 14 Kas Pzr, 2021 17:53

Güneydoğu Asya ülkelerinin demiryolu şebekelerine bakıldığında, iki özellik göze çarpıyor..

- Vietnam, Tayland, Malezya, Singapur, Myanmar, Kamboçya ve Laos’ta şu anda faal olan hemen hemen tüm hatlar, 1.000 mm genişliğindeki raylardan oluşuyor..
Tek istisnası, Hanoi (Vietnam) - Nanning (Çin) bağlantısını sağlayan ve hem standart (1.435 mm) hem de 1.000 mm genişliğe uygun araçların kullanabildiği Hanoi - Dong Dang (Vietnam-Çin sınırı) demiryolu: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanoi%E2% ... ng_railway
(Hanoi - Kunming (Çin) bağlantısını sağlayan demiryolunun Çin'de kalan 466 km'lik kesimi de Çin'in tek 1.000 mm genişliğe sahip demiryolu: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunming%E ... ng_railway)

- Vietnam haricindeki ülkelerin Çin ile bağlantısı olmadığı için dışarıdan tren gelebilmesi olanaklı değil; aşağıdaki harita durumu özetliyor..

Resim

Eskiden, Tayland ile Myanmar arasında bağlantı varmış; ama Tayland’ın en az elli yıl önce inşa ettiği baraj sebebiyle bağlantı kopmuş..
Kamboçya ile Tayland arasındaki bağlantı da Kamboçya İç Savaşı’nda hasar görmüş, 2018 yılında onarılmış, ancak şu anda düzenli seferler yok..
Kamboçya ile Vietnam arasında bağlantı yok, projesi gösterilmiş haritada..
Laos’un Tayland sınırındaki başkenti Vientiane, Tayland’ın demiryolunu sınıra kadar getirmesi sayesinde Tayland’a ve Malezya üzerinden Singapur’a bağlı..

Dışarıyla tek bağlantı, Vietnam ile Çin arasında; Pekin’den tek trenle 2.800 km’yi ve 1,5 günü aşan bir yolculuk yaparak başkent Hanoi’ye ve orada tren değiştirerek 1.700 km’yi aşan bir yolculukla eski başkent Ho Chi Minh City’ye ulaşmak mümkün..

2021 Aralık ayında tamamlanacak iki demiryolu hattı sayesinde, Çin-Laos-Tayland-Malezya-Singapur arasında kesintisiz bağlantı kurulacak..

1) Çin sınırlarında yer alan Yuxi-Mohan Demiryolu (507 km): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuxi–Mohan_railway

2) Laos sınırlarında yer alan Boten-Vientiane Demiryolu (414 km): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boten–Vientiane_railway

Her iki demiryolu da standart genişliğe sahip olduğu için Güneydoğu Asya’da ilk kez bir ülkenin metrelik ray genişliği haricinde demiryolu şebekesi olacak..

Bu hatların Tayland sınırlarındaki mevcut 627 km’lik hatta https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northeast ... (Thailand) bağlanması ile Çin-Laos-Tayland-Malezya-Singapur arasında kesintisiz demiryolu bağlantısı sağlanmış olacak..

Konuyla ilgili ana başlığı da şuraya yapıştırayım: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunming–Singapore_railway

Burada bahsedilen üç koridordan merkez koridor (Çin-Laos-Tayland) önümüzdeki ay açılmış olacak, ancak doğu koridoru (Çin-Vietnam-Kamboçya-Tayland) ve batı koridoru (Çin-Myanmar-Tayland) için bir süre daha beklemek gerekecek..

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Pir-i Seyyâh
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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Esat » 15 Kas Pzt, 2021 07:13

devam eden projeyi kim finanse ediyor acaba? Çin bu bölgede zaten güçlü bir nüfuza sahip sanırım, yukarıda Türki cumhuriyetler dediğimiz bölgede demiryolu inşaatı ile pek çok imtiyaz elde etmişlerdi, bu bölgeyi de bir şekilde yatırım yaparak iyice kendine bağlamak istiyor olabilirler mi?

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 15 Kas Pzt, 2021 12:42

Esat yazdı:
15 Kas Pzt, 2021 07:13
devam eden projeyi kim finanse ediyor acaba? Çin bu bölgede zaten güçlü bir nüfuza sahip sanırım, yukarıda Türki cumhuriyetler dediğimiz bölgede demiryolu inşaatı ile pek çok imtiyaz elde etmişlerdi, bu bölgeyi de bir şekilde yatırım yaparak iyice kendine bağlamak istiyor olabilirler mi?
Aynen abi, tam olarak dediğin gibi olmuş: https://china.aiddata.org/projects/33726/
In December 2016, Lao-China Railway Company (老中铁路有限公 or LCRC) — a joint venture between three Chinese state-owned enterprises that collectively hold a 70% ownership stake and one Lao state-owned enterprise that owns a 30% ownership stake — signed a BOT concession agreement with the Government of Laos for the China-Laos Railway Project. The total cost of the project is $5.9 billion and it is being financed according to 60:40 debt-to-equity ratio ($3.54 billion of debt and $2.36 billion of equity). Lao-China Railway Company directly secured $3.54 billion of debt financing from China Eximbank (captured in Project ID#85304), and the Government of Laos and the Chinese Government jointly contributed $730 million and $1.63 billion of equity financing, respectively. In order to make its $730 million equity contribution to the project, the Government of Laos secured a $480 million loan from China Eximbank (captured in Project ID#33726) and it agreed to provide $250 million of its own funding (in annual installments). The Government of Laos signed the China Eximbank loan agreement on September 8, 2016. The loan carries the following borrowing terms: 2.3% interest rate, 25-year maturity, and 5-year grace period. The Government of Laos did not issue a sovereign guarantee in support of the loan, but it did pledge revenues from a bauxite mine and three potash mines in Laos as sources of collateral to secure the loan. An intergovernmental framework agreement on November 13, 2015 preceded the signing of this loan agreement.

The purpose of the project is to construct a 418 mile railway segment that connects Kunming, the capital city of southwestern China’s Yunnan Province, with Laos’ capital city, Vientiane. This railway segment will pass through the capital of Vientiane and the four provinces of Luangnamtha, Oudomxay, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane. It is part of a larger Kunming-Singapore Railway Project (also known as the Kunming-Singapore Trans Asian Railway Corridor), which starts from Kunming and ends in Singapore, passing through Laos, Thailand and Malaysia. The single-track electrified rail line has a designed speed of 160 km/hour and it is being built in standard gauge. 47% percent of the railway will pass through 75 tunnels and 15% will pass over viaducts spread over 167 bridges. There are 32 planned stations along the route, and according to the Ministry of Public Works and Transport of Laos, 50 meters of land on either side of the tracks will be reserved for the railway's developers. The final station will be Thanaleng station. Xay Village in Xaythany District is to be the site of Vientiane Station, the largest station on the railway.

According to a 2012 feasibility study, the internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is 4.56%. Sinohydro Corporation, Power Construction Corporation of China, China Railway No. 5 Group, China Railway No. 2 Group and China Railway No. 8 Group are the contractors responsible for implementation. The formal start of works was announced in December 2015. However, progress was initially slow due to unresolved property issues as well as detailed design works. A groundbreaking ceremony did not take place until December 25, 2016. (Note: An earlier groundbreaking ceremony was abandoned in 2011 after reports emerged that China was demanding large land concessions along the railway line in return for funding its construction.) ‘Full-scale construction’ began in the summer of 2017. By mid-2018, the project had achieved a 20% completion rate. Then, on March 27, 2020, the first 500-meter long track was successfully laid in Vientiane. Construction of the Vientiane Railway Station commenced on July 3, 2020. Railway infrastructure was reportedly 90% complete as of July 2020. The expected project completion date is December 2, 2021. Upon completion, the Laos-China Railway is expected to reduce the time necessary to travel from Mohan-Boten to Vientiane from three days to less than three hours.

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Esat » 15 Kas Pzt, 2021 18:49

bu konuda her yerde aktifler, afrika ülkelerinde de benzer şekilde ilerliyorlar, herkesin yumuşak karnı neresi ise oradan çalışıyorlar.

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 16 Kas Sal, 2021 16:14

Aynen abi, adamlar uzun vadeli planlar yapıyorlar ve adım adım ilerliyorlar..

Mesela, yukarıda bahsetmiştim; Güneydoğu Asya ülkelerinin Çin'le üç bağlantısı var: Nanning - Hanoi, Kunming - Hanoi ve iki hafta sonra açılacak olan Kunming - Vientiane..

Adamlar bu bağlantıların Çin anakarası tarafında etkili olabilmesi için beş yıl önce Nanning - Kunming arasında 716 km uzunluğunda hızlı tren bağlantısı kurmuşlar: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanning%E ... ed_railway
Nanning–Kunming high-speed railway (formerly known as the Yunnan–Guangxi high-speed railway) is a high-speed railway connecting Nanning and Kunming, respectively the capitals of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province. It has a total length of 715.8 km (444.8 mi) of electrified double-track railway, built to the Grade 1 standard. Positioned as part of China's "long-term railway network plan", to improve the layout and the development of South-Western China with critical infrastructure, it was Yunnan Province's first high-speed transport corridor to the sea. With future Pan-Asian railways to Laos, Thailand and Vietnam planned or under construction, this railway will be seen as a crucial link between the economic powerhouse of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and Indochina under the One Belt-One Road initiative.

December 27, 2009 – Construction of the Nanning–Kunming high-speed railway started.
June 20, 2011 – Xiaotuanshan tunnel breakthrough.
October 2015 – Phase 1 from Nanning to Baise completed construction and testing began.
December 11, 2015 – Phase 1 opened and operations from Nanning to Baise section commenced, with CRH2A trains.
December 28, 2016, Phase 2 opened and operations from Baise to Kunming section commenced.

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Esat » 16 Kas Sal, 2021 17:33

evet adamlar demiryolu işletmeciliğinin bilinen en eski tekniğini kullanıyorlar, ülkelere hızlı tren kuruyorlar, karşılığında geçtiği bölgelerde yer altı kaynakları araştırma ve çıkarma imtiyazları alıyorlar, orta asyada bildiğim kadarı ile bu şekilde ilerlediler

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 17 Kas Çrş, 2021 01:08

Aynen abi, şurada özetlemiş: https://china.aiddata.org/projects/33726/
The Government of Laos did not issue a sovereign guarantee in support of the loan, but it did pledge revenues from a bauxite mine and three potash mines in Laos as sources of collateral to secure the loan.
Laos çok dağlık bir ülke olduğu için demiryolunun %47’si 75 tünelden ve %15’i 167 köprüden geçiyor; 414 km’lik yolun maliyeti 6 milyar ABD$ olmuş..

Aşağıdaki resim, Çin-Laos sınır geçişindeki tünelin deneme seferleri sırasında çekilen görüntüsü..

Resim

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 02 Ara Prş, 2021 15:40

Bugün Laos'un kuruluşunun 46. yıldönümü ve Laos-Çin arasında bağlantı sağlayacak demiryolunun resmî açılışı yapıldı..
Laos'un daha önce 4 kilometre olan demiryolu uzunluğu, bu yeni hat sayesinde 418 kilometreye yükseldi, yani %10.350 büyüme kaydetti :)

Hat üzerinde, 3 Aralık’tan itibaren yük ve 4 Aralık’tan itibaren yolcu taşınacak: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/asia/la ... my-2343156
A new US$6 billion Chinese-built railway line opens in Laos on Friday (Dec 3), bringing hopes of an economic boost to the reclusive nation, but experts are questioning the benefits of a project that has seen thousands of farmers evicted from their land.

The 414km route took five years to construct under China's trillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative, which funds infrastructure projects aimed at increasing Beijing's clout globally.

Resim

Struggling strawberry farmer Anouphon Phomhacsar is hoping the new railway will get his business back on track.

His farm usually produces up to two tonnes of the red heart-shaped fruits a year, but the pandemic has hit the 2021 harvest hard.

It currently takes Phomhacsar three to four hours to send his strawberries to Vientiane by road, but he hopes the new railway will cut this delivery time in half.

And he says it will also be easier for tourists to travel to camp under the stars and pick berries.

"In the future, foreign tourists coming to the farm could be in the tens of thousands," he told AFP.

The train route will connect the Chinese city of Kunming to the Laos capital, with grand plans for high-speed rail to ultimately snake down through Thailand and Malaysia to Singapore.

Resim

Infrastructure-poor Laos, a reclusive communist-run country of 7.2 million people, previously had only 4km of railway tracks.

But now sleek red, blue and white bullet trains will speed along the new line at up to 160kmh, passing through 75 tunnels and across 167 bridges, stopping at 10 passenger stations.

ECONOMIC BOOST
Despite registering only dozens of COVID-19 cases until April, Laos' economy took a pandemic battering - economic growth declined to 0.4 per cent in 2020, the lowest level in three decades, according to the World Bank.

Hopes for a 2021 rebound were dashed - Laos locked down as it clocked up roughly 70,000 infections in the past eight months.

Resim

And while the railway could boost tourism, freight and agriculture, according to a World Bank report, the government needs to undertake substantial reforms, including improving border clearance processes.

"The new railway is a major investment that has the potential to stimulate the Lao economy and allow the country to take advantage of its geographical position at the heart of mainland Southeast Asia," Sombath Southivong, a senior World Bank infrastructure specialist, told AFP.

Laos' tourist industry is hoping for a boost from the railway, which will drastically cut travel times.

Resim

The tourism industry is desperate for a pick-me-up after the pandemic caused an 80 per cent downturn in international traveller numbers in 2020 - 4.7 million foreign tourists visited the previous year.

Pre-pandemic young nomads crammed onto buses at Vientiane for the four-hour ride to adventure capital Vang Vieng - a journey that will now take about an hour by train.

The town, which has a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) airstrip, was notorious for backpackers behaving badly at jungle parties before it rebranded as an eco-tourism destination.

But the kayaks, river rafts, ziplines and hot air balloons have been empty of late.

Inthira - a boutique hotel nestled on the banks of the Nam Song River - shifted from a full occupancy rate to only a trickle of domestic travellers on weekends, says general manager Oscar Tality.

Tality hopes the railway and reduced travel times will give the industry a shot in the arm.

"Along the way people will see magnificent views of the mountains and will cross over bridges and tunnels. It will be a wonderful trip for those on the train," Tality told AFP.

Resim

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 15 Ara Çrş, 2021 09:59

Geçen aya kadar, dünyanın en uzun tren yolculuğunu Lagos (Avrupa'nın güneybatı ucu) ile Ho Chi Minh City arasındaki toplam 16.898 km uzunluğundaki demiryollarında yapmak mümkün olabiliyordu..

Ay başında, Laos ile Çin arasındaki demiryolunun açılmasıyla, artık Lagos ile Singapur arasındaki toplam 18.755 km uzunluğundaki demiryolu yolculuğunu yapmak mümkün olacak; tabii Covid kısıtlamaları nedeniyle muhtelif uluslararası tren seferleri yeniden hizmete açılınca:
https://www.euronews.com/travel/2021/12 ... ch-does-it
Portugal to Singapore could be the longest train journey in the world. But how much does it cost?

Resim

The opening of a new train line in Laos has just created the longest continuous train journey in the world.

Travelling all the way from Lagos in Southern Portugal to Singapore, it takes you through Paris, Moscow and Beijing. And at 18,755km, experts estimate completing the full journey would take 21 days.

The hypothetical route was calculated by train buffs on Reddit with the help of rail expert Mark Smith from seat61.com.

Before now, a continuous train journey on this route would have ended in Vietnam and only gone on for around 16,898km. To then travel to Singapore, passengers would have had to catch a bus from Saigon, through Cambodia to Bangkok.

But on 2 December this year, a high-speed rail line opened connecting Kunming in China to Vientiane, the capital of Laos. This means those looking for an extreme trip by train can now get between Beijing and Bangkok then on to Singapore - creating the new longest continuous train journey in the world.

Embarking on this monumental trip would take you through 13 different countries from Spain, Poland and Belarus in Europe to Mongolia, Thailand and Malaysia on the Asian leg of the journey.

The time it would take was calculated by British train enthusiast, Mark Smith who runs a website that advises on long journeys like this.

There are of course a few overnight stops included in the 21 day journey time, that Smith says are to allow for visas, paperwork and making connecting rail trips. Some short hops across cities to different railway stations would also be needed and booking tickets for the entire trip could cost around €1,200.

Laos, a nation of 7 million people wedged between China, Vietnam and Thailand, is opening a Chinese-built railway that links China's poor southwest to foreign markets.

Travelling by train would also significantly reduce the carbon emissions of the journey. A one-way flight from Lisbon Portugal to Changi Airport in Singapore would emit an estimated 1.67 tonnes of CO2 equivalents. In comparison, making the long journey by either train or bus would emit roughly 0.08 tonnes.

Booking tickets for the entire trip could cost around €1,200.

The Reddit thread points out that some of the railways included in the route are not operating due to COVID-19. Two of the longest legs, the Paris-Moscow Express and Moscow to Beijing are currently suspended because of the pandemic.

That means that if you are looking to try out this once in a lifetime, record-breaking train trip, it might have to wait until travel restrictions are lifted.

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 15 Ara Çrş, 2021 10:45

Yukarıdaki yolculuğun haritalı bir haberini buldum, onu da paylaşıyorum: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/articl ... train.html
Lasting at least 21 days and covering 11,654 miles, it is the ultimate challenge for train buffs.

Experts believe a new record has just been set for the longest possible continuous railway journey.

Thanks to the opening of a railway in Laos earlier this month, it is now possible to travel from Lagos, in southern Portugal, all the way to Singapore by train with just a few changes.

The 11,654-mile journey could be done in 21 days allowing for overnight stays to make connections and sort out visas and other paperwork, say experts.

It tops the previous longest possible rail trip by around 1,000 miles and has been made possible by the opening on December 2 of a railway connecting the Laotian cities of Vientiane, the capital, with Boten, near the Chinese border.

The journey, which does require some very short interchanges between stations, has been calculated by users of the Reddit website with help from British train enthusiast Mark Smith.

Resim

Then you would head south through China, Laos, Thailand and Malaysia before eventually you could end up enjoying Singapore Sling cocktails in the Long Bar at Raffles hotel in Singapore.

The railway in Laos was built by the Chinese and is the first in the landlocked country.

It allows the intrepid rail traveller to get from Beijing to Bangkok by rail – a gap that would previously have to have been largely crossed by bus – and then on to Singapore.

Previously, the rail traveller would have had to finish in Vietnam, a journey of around 10,500 miles.

Mr Smith, from Quainton, Buckinghamshire, a former station manager at Charing Cross and Cannon Street stations in London, said: 'Previously, you could only go as far south as Saigon and then go by bus through Cambodia to go to Bangkok.

'But now there's the cross-Laos railway. It's a very impressive achievement.'

Mr Smith, who runs the seat61.com website which advises travellers on long-distance rail journeys, believes it will take around 21 days to complete the trip.

It will be this long because travellers will have to stay overnight along the route, for example in Lisbon, Madrid and Paris, and they will have to stay two nights in Moscow and two in Beijing.

But to make the complete journey they will have to wait because two of the longest legs – Paris to Moscow and Moscow to Beijing – are currently suspended due to the pandemic. The trip could cost a little over £1,000.

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Engin Y » 28 Ara Sal, 2021 14:39

Çin-Laos arasındaki demiryolu sayesinde, Çin'den Tayland'a giden taze meyve ve sebzelerin hem taşıma süresi yarı yarıya azalmış, hem de taşıma maliyeti %30 düşmüş: http://www.ecns.cn/news/cns-wire/2021-1 ... 7580.shtml
2021-12-28

Cold-chain train launched on China-Laos Railway

A train carrying 21 refrigerated containers left Yuxi, southwest China's Yunnan province, for Laos' capital Vientiane on Monday, marking the opening of a new cold-chain logistic channel for vegetables and fruits between the two cities.

The cargo on this train consists of 20 containers of vegetables and one container of flowers, weighing over 300 tons.

After the operation of China-Laos Railway international freight trains, the travel time of vegetables and fruits of cold-chain logistics from Yuxi to Vientiane, and then to Thailand's capital Bangkok via road transportation will be shortened to 68 hours, at least 76 hours shorter than traditional single road transportation. In addition, the average freight per container has dropped by 30 percent.

Currently, the travel time between Yuxi and Vientiane is about 18 hours excluding the border clearance time.

The China-Laos Railway will provide supports for Yunan's fresh agricultural products exports to Southeast Asian countries.

Yuxi is located in central Yunnan Province and has superior location and transportation advantages. In 2020, Yuxi exported $3.15 billion of agricultural products, accounting for 60.4 percent of the total export volume of Yunnan's agricultural products, and 90 percent of them were exported to Southeast Asian countries, including Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar.

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Re: int-SEA.01 » Güneydoğu Asya Demiryolu Hatları

Mesaj gönderen Esat » 28 Ara Sal, 2021 18:56

ooo işte demiryolu taşımacılığının verimliliği üzerine güzel bir bilgi, sağolasın.

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